When dealing with rendering data for an email, one frequently has to make many database calls to assemble the required data. This can be slow, and depending on how you structure the code that is assembling the data vs rendering the data in a template, it’s very easy to be making repeated calls, which can significantly slow down your process. Additionally, whether you are using Haml, Mustache, Jade, or any other templating language, embedding too much logic in the template can making things hard to maintain (especially if some logic lives in the template and some elsewhere in your domain code). Of course some logic in the template (a conditional: should I render this section?, or loops: render this hash of data) is necessary, but I like to keep as much out of there as possible. It’s easier to optimize, debug and maintain that logic elsewhere, and also writing complex logic in Ruby is much more fun than in a templating language!
In this article I’ll present what I’ve been doing to keep my templates relatively logic-free, and how I make sure I don’t repeat any heavy database calls in assembling my data.
The Setup - Presenters and Memoization
First, I’d like to introduce the Presenter pattern, and how this can help clean up your templates. Here are a couple of links about using presenters with Rails that I’ve found useful:
Consider the following screenshot of a section of a weekly email that we send our users:
This section shows works that have been added that week by artists that you follow. That’s clearly going to involve some database calls, and potentially heavy ones at that. Now we’d like to accomplish two things here: we want to make sure that we only make these calls once (no matter what we wind up doing with the data later), and we also would like to make sure that any code or logic that is making these calls and doing any data manipulation is not being done directly in our templates. Keeping this kind of logic out of your template will make it easier to debug, maintain and write.
Let’s start by creating a Module to hold the various logic required for this email:
class WeeklyEmailPresenter def initialize(user) @user = user end end
Ok, so far so good. In our mail template rendering/calling code, we can now say:
@presenter = WeeklyEmailPresenter.new(user)
This will allow us to refer to methods in this class in our mail template. So now let’s add a method that will query our database and return a list of artists that this user should be notified about:
class WeeklyEmailPresenter def initialize(user) @user = user end def recently_added_works # Some really heavy database query end end
Ok, that was easy. In our HAML template, we can now do:
-if @presenter.recently_added_works && @presenter.recently_added_works.any? %table %tr %td -@presenter.recently_added_works.each do |artists| <!-- markup to render each artist with recently added works -->
However, take a look at how many times we’ve referred to
@presenter.recently_added_works - 3 times already! And we’ll most likely refer to it more elsewhere (perhaps when deriving a subject line, or showing a total count somewhere, etc.). Depending on how you’ve implemented the method
recently_added_works, you may be re-querying the database every time it’s referred to! Clearly that’s a lot of wasted resources. So, let’s look at an easy change that will guarantee we only ever perform the work to assemble this data once. We memoize it:
class WeeklyEmailPresenter def initialize(user) @user = user end def recently_added_works @recently_added_works ||= build_recently_added_works end private def build_recently_added_works # Code to do database lookups end end
All we’re doing is moving the actual code that’s doing the heavy lifting into a
private method (for convention, I like to prefix the name with
build_). The public method that we refer to elsewhere in our presenter and template simply calls the appropriate
private method. Through using an instance variable combined with conditional assignment, we guarantee that the
build_ method (our heavy and slow workhorse method) will only be called once, no matter how many times we refer to the public method.
That’s it! To summarize, use instance variables in your public methods which is what your templates and other code will use. Those public methods should call private
build_ methods which actually do all the heavy lifting. This way, you get to easily move logic away from a template and into its own module, and can guarantee that you’re not repeating any long-running database queries or other slow data processing.
Hopefully you’ve found this a useful pattern to follow, please leave any feedback in the comments and follow us on Github!